The most asked SAP HR Interview Questions (Business Processes in HCM)

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SAP HR Interview Questions |Business Processes in HCM| Part B

  Hope You found Part A of SAP HR Interview Questions on Business Processes in HCM helpful while preparing for your SAP HCM Interview questions. Here in this post we are adding 26 most asked SAP HCM interview questions as Part B, which is an addition to existing 25 questions on Business Processes in SAP HR. It is highly recommended that you read Part A before reading this post. Click here to read Part A.   

1. What are the most important processes in the HR department? The HR is the most important division for any organization. The processes of the HR department are employee administration, payroll, legal reporting of efficiency, and agreements with the changing global and local regulations.  
2. List the most important structures in HR. Following are the important structures in HR

  • Enterprise
  • Personnel
  • Organization
  • Pay Scale
  • Wage type

3. What is Employee Self-Service (ESS)? ESS facilitates the employees of an organization to create, view, and change the data anytime and anywhere, with the help of various technologies. It provides employees with an employee-centric portal to enable them to access and modify the information required for their jobs. For example, employees can manage their home address and emergency contacts.  

4. List the functions required to select an Infotype. Following are the functions required to select an Infotype:

  • Create/INS
  • Delete
  • Delimit
  • Lock/Unlock

5. How do you hire a new employee? A new employee is hired with the PA40 transaction code. After that, all the Infotypes are maintained for the employee by using the PA30 transaction code.  

6. Name the modules available in SAP R/3 for professional users. The following modules are available in SAP R/3 for professional users:

  • Advanced Planner and Optimizer
  • Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM)

7. What object does a qualification catalog contain? A qualification catalog consists of two objects: qualification groups and qualifications.  

8. What are the goals of SAP initiative? The goals of SAP initiative are given as follows:

  • Providing an easy to learn, use, and customize software.
  • Extending the reach of SAP by bringing more role specific scenarios

9. What does a profile match-up means? A profile match-up means:

  • Matching the qualification of an applicant with the requirements of a position
  • Matching the profile of an applicant with the requirements of a position
  • Generating the training proposals from a qualification deficit.

10. Which architecture does the SAP system use? The SAP system uses the three-tier-architecture.

11. What happens when a user accesses a transaction in the SAP R/3 system? When a user accesses a transaction in the SAP R/3 system, the following tasks are performed:

  • Executes a query in Structured Query Language (SQL) from the application level to the database level
  • Transfers data from the relational database to the front end system
  • Converts the data from one consistent state to another
  • Updates the database when data is entered using the transactions

12. How are business objects maintained in SAP? Business objects are maintained in the Business Object Repository.   Recommended Reading

SAP HR Interview Questions on Business Processes in HCM: Part A- Click Here

13. How is a business object characterized in SAP? A business object has the following characteristics in SAP:

  • Attributes
  • Methods/Application Programs

14. What tasks can be performed at the attendee level in the dynamic attendance menu? In the dynamic attendance menu, you can perform the following tasks:

  • Book an attendance
  • Replace an attendance

15. What is the use of a Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)? The following are the uses of BAPI

  • Provides an interface that integrates third party applications or components with SAP R/3
  • Provides an interface between a business and a method

16. What are the different processes involved in an appraisal? The different processes involved in an appraisal are as follows:

  • Prepare an appraisal
  • Perform an appraisal
  • Complete an appraisal

17. What are the functions performed by BAPI? The following functions are performed by BAPI

  • Create objects
  • Display attributes of objects
  • Change attributes of objects

18. What is the use of Application Link Enabling (ALE)? ALE performs the following functions:

  • Distribute data, master data, and transaction data across different systems
  • Refers to an enterprise structure, which is the combination of centralized and decentralized tasks
  • Provides support for the implementation and operation of distributed SAP applications
  • Exchanges data using Intermediate Documents (IDocs)

19. What are the main functions of Project IMG? The main functions of Project IMG are given as follows:

  • Create an IMG for each project
  • Maintains project documentation
  • Maintains project management status
  • Maintains cross project documentation

20. What do you mean by Go Live in SAP? Go Live in SAP

  • Tests whether the system is suitably configured before they go live
  • Tests whether the configuration matches with the client requirement or not

21. What are the main components of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) module? The CRM module has the following functions:

  • Capturing customer data across the enterprise in a central database
  • Analyzing the customer data and distribute the results to the contact points where the customer can be contacted
  • Providing solutions that enable companies to effectively manage customer relationships throughout the entire life-cycle

22. What are the components of Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO)? Following are the components of APO in SAP:

  • Global available to Promise (ATP)
  • Supply Network Planning
  • Supply Chain Cock Pit

23. What Infotypes are used in Compensation Management? The following Infotypes are used in Compensation Management:

  • Salary Survey Results
  • Planned Compensation
  • Job Evaluation Results

24. What Infotypes are used in Travel Management? The following Infotypes are used in Travel Management:

  • Actions
  • Organizational Assignment
  • Personal Data
  • Travel Privileges
  • Payroll Status

25. What are the basic characteristics of the Organization Management module? The Organization Management module has the following characteristics:

  • Uses flow
  • Uses relationships between objects
  • Creates additional characteristics for objects

26. What are the main components of the compensation management? Compensation management has the following components:

  • Job Pricing
  • Job evaluations
  • Budgeting
  • Compensation administration

While we are compiling more quality HR Interview Questions from all spectrum of HR, we look forward to hear how you find this blog post. Please feel free to share your thoughts in the comment box below. Don’t forget to share the articles with your friends and colleagues. wish you a quality reading!

Incredible facts on Ancient India to rejuvenate your General Knowledge

Facts about Ancient India

India History is classified into three broad categories: Ancient, Medieval and Modern.

ANCIENT INDIA

Indus Valley Civilization

The development of Indus Valley Civilization is the most important event of ancient Indian history. This civilization wad developed on the banks of river Indus. It extends from Jammu in the north to Ahmednagar in the south, and in various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Lothal in Gujarat, Banwali in Haryana and Ropar in Punjab. Indus Valley Civilization period lies between 3000 BC and 1500 BC. The main cities associated with are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Lothal. The main features of this civilization are the town planning. They had a great building, well-planned roads, cities, and drainage system. Hunting and agriculture were their main sources of livelihood. They were the first to produce cotton.

A. Vedic Period

This is marked by the entry of Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through Hindukush mountains. The period lies between 2500-2000 BC. The main feature of Aryans was – They were the admirers of nature and worshiped sun, fire, and water. Yagna was an important part of their religion. They had organized a system of living and were quite matured socially and politically. They had following religious books:

1. Vedas

These books were their most sacred books. These are the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization. They were four in number, viz. Rig Veda- The oldest and contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni Sam Veda- It dealt with music. Yajur Veda- It dealt with formulae and rituals. Atharva Veda- It dealt with medicines.

2. The Purana

The Puranas were 18 in number and contained details of Aryan Civilization like their rituals, traditions, and formulae.

3. The Upanishads

They are the main source of Indian Philosophy and are 300 in number. The Brahmans and Aranyakas are the other important religious books of Aryans.

B. The Later Vedic Period

This period ranges from 2000-700 BC. The important features of this period are: It is also known as the period of Brahmanical Age which is very near to modern-day, Hindu religion. Society which was in Hindu divided into four castes (a) Brahmins, (b) Kshatriyas, (c) Vaisyas, and (d) Sudras, depending on the work they did in the mentioned order of preference. Caste system in India taken from the ancient India | Image Source Brahmins were the priestly class, Kshatriyas were the fighter, Vaisyas were the business class, and Sudras represented the labor class. Two great epics and Shastras were written in this period, namely Mahabharata by Ved Vyas and Ramayana by Maharishi Valmiki. The Shastras dealt with Indian philosophy and concepts of birth, death, and God.

C. Rise of religion (other than Hinduism)

Buddhism

Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of Shakya Clan, Siddhartha, (later came to be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC, who was born at Lumbini (in Nepal) near Kapilvastu. He was the son of King Shuddhodhana, He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a papal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U.P. He spread his message of many years and died at Kushinagar in U.P. There are many sects of Buddhism out of which three are important: Mahayan (the higher vehicle) – It believes Buddha to be a God Hinman (the lesser Vehicle) – It does not believe that Buddha was a God. It is a more pristine form of Buddhism. Vajrayan- It is the tantric form of Buddhism. Now prevalent in Ladakh and Bhutan. Buddhism got divided into Hinyan and Mahayan at the fourth Buddhist council held during the reign of Harshavardhan. The main Buddhist teachings are: The eight-fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration. Belief in Nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death), Ahimsa, the law of karma.

Jainism

Founded by Rishabha (a Kshatriya), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC in Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge, ‘Kaivalya,’ after he becomes ascetic at the age of 30. He became a ‘Jina’ one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pava near Rajgiri. Jainism is also divided into two sects, viz., digambars and shwetambara. Former is a more pristine form and remain naked, while latter, wear white clothes. The main feature of Jainism are: The triratna concept, consisting of (a) right knowledge, (b) right faith, (c) right conduct. Belief in Karma and belief in Ahimsa, are the other two great teachings of this religion. [table id=1 /] Hope you liked the detailed information on ancient India. In the next post, we will discuss medieval India.

Do you know about Modern India? A General Knowledge Approach

As we know, Indian history can be classified into three broad categories. Ancient, Medieval and Modern. We have already discussed Ancient and Medieval India in last few posts. Here, in this post, we will study about Modern India and throw some light on the chain of events happening in ancient India and concluding in modern India.

Modern India

In 1498, a Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India helped in establishing the political structure in India. East India Company of Britain came here with the excuse of trading and soon started developing its political dominion in India and, finally, succeeded in establishing their rule over India.

Important events related to Modern Indian History

1. First war of Independence (Mutiny of Sepoys)

It took place in 1857 when soldiers refused to touch the new rifle cartridges which were said to have been greased with a cover made of animal fat. Mangal Pande was a prominent figure, who surfaced during this mutiny. He killed two Britishers at Barrackbore, and this was also one of the causes of the mutiny.

2. Government of India Act, 1858

This proclaimed the direct governance of British crown over India.

3. Formation of Indian National Congress

A.O.Hume is credited with the formation of Indian National Congress in December 1885, which held its first session at Bombay, under the presidentship of W.C. Banerjee.

4. Partition of Bengal

It took place in 1905.

Other significant events related to Indian Freedom Movement

formation of congress by AO hume-modern-india

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Important Lords and Viceroys associated with British rule and related events

lord_dalhousie-modern-india

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List of Important Historical Events

alexander-modern-india
Image Source
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List of important Presidents of Indian National Congress

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Important Newspaper brought out by National Leaders

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Important visitors to India and the Kings whose courts they visited

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A dive into Medieval India – General Knowledge Approach

Medieval India

Indian history can be classified into three broad categories, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. In the last post, we discussed Ancient India and Indus valley civilization detail. Now, we are discussing medieval history.

Introduction

Marked by the beginning of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghouri. The period of Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. This is considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India. India in this period is called Medieval India.

Important Dynasties in Medieval India

1. The Slave Dynasty

The Slave Dynasty’s period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibek, and the prominent rulers of this dynasty were Iltutmish and the only Muslim woman ruler of India, Razia Sultana.

2. The Khilji dynasty

It was founded by Jalal-Ud-din Khilji and its period ranges from AD 1290-1320. Alaud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty.

3. The Tughlaq dynasty

It was founded by Ghiasuddin Tughlak and the period ranges from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Batuta was an important African traveler who visited India in 1333.

4. The Lodhi Dynasty

It was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of the dynasty ranges from AD 1451-1526. Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty.

5. The Mughal Dynasty

One of the most important dynasties of India is Mughal dynasty, which reigned almost continuously from AD 1526-1857 (the longest period).

Important Rulers of Mughal Dynasty:

1. Babur

He is credited with the foundation of Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.

2. Humayun

He was the next emperor of Mughal empire after Babur.

3. Akbar

The most successful of Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi.

4. Jehangir

 The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar’s death, known for his administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of famous Noor Jahan Begum.

5. Shah Jahan

Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife, Mumtaj Mahal. Jama Masjid and red Fort are the other two famous buildings that were built by him.

6. Aurangzeb

A very cruel ruler and son of Shah Jahan, who demolished several religious structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. Mughal Empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took the famous Kohinoor diamond with him to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the leadership of Shivaji. Name of Fame: Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri | Image Source He was a brilliant administrator who issued the coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta.

Important monuments built by Mughal in Medieval India:

1. Shalimar garden and Nishant Bagh by Jehangir

2. Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Agra Fort by Shah Jahan

Geographical Facts Everyone should know as a part of General Knowledge

Physical Geographical Facts

Geographical facts are derived from common general knowledge on planets, satellites, moon, eclipses, atmosphere, continents, oceans, rocks, etc. We will cover these elements of physical geography in brief here. In next post, we will cover an exclusive section on geographical facts of India. To explore more general knowledge resources click here.

Planets

The revolving bodies around the Sun are called planets. There are eight known planets. Diameter of planets | Image Source 1. Mercury Closest to the Sun and is the fastest planet to revolve around the Sun 2. Venus Brightest planet after the Sun and the Moon and is the hottest planet in all 3. Earth is only known planet to possess life 4. Mars Known as the red planet. Explored for life astronomers now, as it is having similarities with Earth. 5. Jupiter The largest planet of the solar system. 6. Saturn System of rings are the characteristics feature of this planet 7. Uranus 8. Neptune 9. Pluto – The International Astronomical Union (IAU) downgraded the status of Pluto to that of a dwarf planet because it did not meet the three criteria the IAU uses to define a full-sized planet. Essentially Pluto meets all the criteria except one i.e. it has not cleared its neighboring region of other objects.”

Comets

These are essential bodies that move around the Sun. Two famous comets known, are as follow Halley’s Comet | Image Source 1. Halley’s Comet: Discovered by British astronomer Edmond Halley, takes 76.1 years to encircle the Sun. It was last seen on February 9, 1986. 2. Smith-Tuttle Comet: It’s huge comet heading on a collision course with Earth on August 17, 2116.

Satellites

These are the bodies which revolve around the planets. Mercury and Venus have no satellite. Earth has only one satellite (natural), i.e. Moon. Jupiter has the maximum number (63) of satellites. Moon | Click Here For Interesting Facts Moon: The first planet of our solar system visited by man. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first to set foot on the Moon, and between them, Neil Armstrong is the first person to have set foot on the Moon.

Earth

Its shape is oblate spheroid called Geoid, like a ball which is flattened at the poles. Interesting Facts about Earth: 1. Mean distance from the Sun: 1,49,407,000 Km. 2. Time taken by Earth to revolve around the Sun: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds. 3. Time taken by Earth for rotating on its own axis: 23 hours 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds. 4. Earth is covered 70% by water and 30% by land.

Movements of Earth

1. Revolution: The earth revolves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit. One complete revolution is called a year and this revolution of Earth causes the change of seasons. 2. Rotation: Earth rotates on its own imaginary axis, also simultaneously revolving around the Sun. It moves from west to east. This causes day and night. 3. Duration of days and night is equal at the equator.

Eclipses

Solar Eclipse

It occurs when the Moon comes between the Sun and the Earth, and this causes hindrance in Sun’s light when reviewed from the Earth. A view of lunar eclipse from space

Lunar Eclipse

When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon causes the lunar eclipse.

Atmosphere

The Earth is surrounded by a gaseous cover called the atmosphere. There are many gasses in the atmosphere like Oxygen, Nitrogen, Caron Dioxide, Helium, Argon, Xenon, etc. The maximum percentage of gas present in the atmosphere is Nitrogen and that comprises 77%. The atmosphere is divided mainly into four layers.

  1. Troposphere: It is the nearest layer to the Earth’s surface and is up to 15 km of height from the Earth’s surface. 2. Stratosphere: From the end of 15 km of the troposphere, the stratosphere is present till 50 km of the atmosphere. 3. Mesosphere: It lies between 50 km and 80 km above the surface of the Earth. 4. Ionosphere: It lies above the mesosphere and extends from 80 km to 400 km above the Earth’s surface. Radio communication takes place because of this layer.

Ozone Layer

The ozone layer is situated in the stratosphere belt of earth’s atmosphere. The basic Ozone gas structure consists of three oxygen atoms. Ozone gas is present in the stratosphere in the form of a layer, which extends from 12 km to 30 km above the earth’s surface. The main function of Ozone is that it protects mankind from harmful radiations which come from the outer space i.e. ultraviolet radiations (UV-radiations) from the Sun. Nowadays this ozone layer is getting depleted which can cause skin cancer and damage vegetation. The main reason behind the depletion of Ozone layer also called Ozone Hole is pollution and pollutants present in the atmosphere like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s also known as Freons), which comes from refrigerated systems, aerosols, air conditioners and solvents. To minimize the Ozone layer depletion the governments of many countries are now replacing the CFC’s with simple hydrocarbons.

Continents

The surface of the Earth is made up of big land masses which are divided into seven continents. The seven continents of the world are as follows: 1. Asia – The largest continent (covers approximately 30% of the world land and hosts 59 percent of the world population. 2. Africa – The largest desert Sahara is there. 3. North America 4. South America 5. Antarctica – covered with ice 6. Europe 7. Oceania (Australia) – The smallest continent and the only continent with capital i.e., Canberra Antarctica and Oceania are islands continents.

Oceans

There are five oceans on the Earth (1) Pacific Ocean (2) Atlantic Ocean (3) India Ocean (4) Arctic Ocean (5) Antarctic Ocean Pacific being the largest occupies 35.25% of the Earth’s surface. The South China Sea has the maximum area among all the seas of the world.

Rocks

These form the crust of the Earth. Basically, rocks are mineral material. They are classified into three broad categories. 1. Igneous rocks – It constitutes 90% of the Earth’s crust. 2. Metamorphic rocks – Original igneous or sedimentary rocks when subject to change due to pressure or temperature, and metamorphose into metamorphic rocks, i.e. slate, marble, etc. 3. Sedimentary rocks – As the name suggests, these rocks are formed from the sedimentary deposits on the ocean beds, i.e. gypsum, limestone, etc.

Important Mountain Ranges and Mountain peaks of the World

(i) Mountain Ranges

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(ii) Mountain Peaks

[table id=9 /] Interesting Fact: Everest is the highest mountain peak of the world, situated in Nepal and extended to Tibet and K2 is India’s highest mountain peak, but it is situated in POK. Therefore, Kanchenjunga is the highest peak within India.

Important Water Sources of the World

(i) natural Lakes

[table id=10 /]

(ii) Shipping Canals
  1. Panama Canal: It links the pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. It is located in Central America and is 58 km long.
  2. Suez Canal: It links the red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is in Egypt and is 169 km long.
  3. Kiel Canal: It lies between Baltic Sea and the North Sea ports. It is in Germany and is 98 km long.

Note: Angel Waterfall which is in Venezuela, is the highest waterfall in the world having a height of 979 meters.

(iii) Important Rivers of the world

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New names of certain cities and countries

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Important world cities on river banks

[table id=13 /] Hope you enjoyed reading this section. You can also read more General Knowledge resources and about the history of India here.

The most asked SAP HR Interview Questions (Business Processes in HCM)

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SAP HR Interview Questions |Business Processes in HCM| Part B

  Hope You found Part A of SAP HR Interview Questions on Business Processes in HCM helpful while preparing for your SAP HCM Interview questions. Here in this post we are adding 26 most asked SAP HCM interview questions as Part B, which is an addition to existing 25 questions on Business Processes in SAP HR. It is highly recommended that you read Part A before reading this post. Click here to read Part A.   


1. What are the most important processes in the HR department? The HR is the most important division for any organization. The processes of the HR department are employee administration, payroll, legal reporting of efficiency, and agreements with the changing global and local regulations.  
2. List the most important structures in HR. Following are the important structures in HR

  • Enterprise
  • Personnel
  • Organization
  • Pay Scale
  • Wage type

3. What is Employee Self-Service (ESS)? ESS facilitates the employees of an organization to create, view, and change the data anytime and anywhere, with the help of various technologies. It provides employees with an employee-centric portal to enable them to access and modify the information required for their jobs. For example, employees can manage their home address and emergency contacts.  


4. List the functions required to select an Infotype. Following are the functions required to select an Infotype:

  • Create/INS
  • Delete
  • Delimit
  • Lock/Unlock

5. How do you hire a new employee? A new employee is hired with the PA40 transaction code. After that, all the Infotypes are maintained for the employee by using the PA30 transaction code.  


6. Name the modules available in SAP R/3 for professional users. The following modules are available in SAP R/3 for professional users:

  • Advanced Planner and Optimizer
  • Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM)

7. What object does a qualification catalog contain? A qualification catalog consists of two objects: qualification groups and qualifications.  


8. What are the goals of SAP initiative? The goals of SAP initiative are given as follows:

  • Providing an easy to learn, use, and customize software.
  • Extending the reach of SAP by bringing more role specific scenarios

9. What does a profile match-up means? A profile match-up means:

  • Matching the qualification of an applicant with the requirements of a position
  • Matching the profile of an applicant with the requirements of a position
  • Generating the training proposals from a qualification deficit.

10. Which architecture does the SAP system use? The SAP system uses the three-tier-architecture.

11. What happens when a user accesses a transaction in the SAP R/3 system? When a user accesses a transaction in the SAP R/3 system, the following tasks are performed:

  • Executes a query in Structured Query Language (SQL) from the application level to the database level
  • Transfers data from the relational database to the front end system
  • Converts the data from one consistent state to another
  • Updates the database when data is entered using the transactions

12. How are business objects maintained in SAP? Business objects are maintained in the Business Object Repository.   Recommended Reading

SAP HR Interview Questions on Business Processes in HCM: Part A- Click Here

13. How is a business object characterized in SAP? A business object has the following characteristics in SAP:

  • Attributes
  • Methods/Application Programs

14. What tasks can be performed at the attendee level in the dynamic attendance menu? In the dynamic attendance menu, you can perform the following tasks:

  • Book an attendance
  • Replace an attendance

15. What is the use of a Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)? The following are the uses of BAPI

  • Provides an interface that integrates third party applications or components with SAP R/3
  • Provides an interface between a business and a method

16. What are the different processes involved in an appraisal? The different processes involved in an appraisal are as follows:

  • Prepare an appraisal
  • Perform an appraisal
  • Complete an appraisal

17. What are the functions performed by BAPI? The following functions are performed by BAPI

  • Create objects
  • Display attributes of objects
  • Change attributes of objects

18. What is the use of Application Link Enabling (ALE)? ALE performs the following functions:

  • Distribute data, master data, and transaction data across different systems
  • Refers to an enterprise structure, which is the combination of centralized and decentralized tasks
  • Provides support for the implementation and operation of distributed SAP applications
  • Exchanges data using Intermediate Documents (IDocs)

19. What are the main functions of Project IMG? The main functions of Project IMG are given as follows:

  • Create an IMG for each project
  • Maintains project documentation
  • Maintains project management status
  • Maintains cross project documentation

20. What do you mean by Go Live in SAP? Go Live in SAP

  • Tests whether the system is suitably configured before they go live
  • Tests whether the configuration matches with the client requirement or not

21. What are the main components of the Customer Relationship Management (CRM) module? The CRM module has the following functions:

  • Capturing customer data across the enterprise in a central database
  • Analyzing the customer data and distribute the results to the contact points where the customer can be contacted
  • Providing solutions that enable companies to effectively manage customer relationships throughout the entire life-cycle

22. What are the components of Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO)? Following are the components of APO in SAP:

  • Global available to Promise (ATP)
  • Supply Network Planning
  • Supply Chain Cock Pit

23. What Infotypes are used in Compensation Management? The following Infotypes are used in Compensation Management:

  • Salary Survey Results
  • Planned Compensation
  • Job Evaluation Results

24. What Infotypes are used in Travel Management? The following Infotypes are used in Travel Management:

  • Actions
  • Organizational Assignment
  • Personal Data
  • Travel Privileges
  • Payroll Status

25. What are the basic characteristics of the Organization Management module? The Organization Management module has the following characteristics:

  • Uses flow
  • Uses relationships between objects
  • Creates additional characteristics for objects

26. What are the main components of the compensation management? Compensation management has the following components:

  • Job Pricing
  • Job evaluations
  • Budgeting
  • Compensation administration

While we are compiling more quality HR Interview Questions from all spectrum of HR, we look forward to hear how you find this blog post. Please feel free to share your thoughts in the comment box below. Don’t forget to share the articles with your friends and colleagues. wish you a quality reading!

Incredible facts on Ancient India to rejuvenate your General Knowledge

Facts about Ancient India

India History is classified into three broad categories: Ancient, Medieval and Modern.

ANCIENT INDIA

Indus Valley Civilization

The development of Indus Valley Civilization is the most important event of ancient Indian history. This civilization wad developed on the banks of river Indus. It extends from Jammu in the north to Ahmednagar in the south, and in various regions of Gujarat. The main sites which have been found in the excavation are Kalibangan in Rajasthan, Lothal in Gujarat, Banwali in Haryana and Ropar in Punjab. Indus Valley Civilization period lies between 3000 BC and 1500 BC. The main cities associated with are Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Lothal. The main features of this civilization are the town planning. They had a great building, well-planned roads, cities, and drainage system. Hunting and agriculture were their main sources of livelihood. They were the first to produce cotton.

A. Vedic Period

This is marked by the entry of Aryans, who were originally inhabitants of Central Asia around the Caspian Sea and probably came through Hindukush mountains. The period lies between 2500-2000 BC. The main feature of Aryans was – They were the admirers of nature and worshiped sun, fire, and water. Yagna was an important part of their religion. They had organized a system of living and were quite matured socially and politically. They had following religious books:

1. Vedas

These books were their most sacred books. These are the oldest known books of Indus Valley Civilization. They were four in number, viz. Rig Veda- The oldest and contained prayers of God, Vayu, Varun, Indra and Agni Sam Veda- It dealt with music. Yajur Veda- It dealt with formulae and rituals. Atharva Veda- It dealt with medicines.

2. The Purana

The Puranas were 18 in number and contained details of Aryan Civilization like their rituals, traditions, and formulae.

3. The Upanishads

They are the main source of Indian Philosophy and are 300 in number. The Brahmans and Aranyakas are the other important religious books of Aryans.

B. The Later Vedic Period

This period ranges from 2000-700 BC. The important features of this period are: It is also known as the period of Brahmanical Age which is very near to modern-day, Hindu religion. Society which was in Hindu divided into four castes (a) Brahmins, (b) Kshatriyas, (c) Vaisyas, and (d) Sudras, depending on the work they did in the mentioned order of preference. Caste system in India taken from the ancient India | Image Source Brahmins were the priestly class, Kshatriyas were the fighter, Vaisyas were the business class, and Sudras represented the labor class. Two great epics and Shastras were written in this period, namely Mahabharata by Ved Vyas and Ramayana by Maharishi Valmiki. The Shastras dealt with Indian philosophy and concepts of birth, death, and God.

C. Rise of religion (other than Hinduism)

Buddhism

Initiated by a Kshatriya prince of Shakya Clan, Siddhartha, (later came to be known as Buddha) around 6th century BC, who was born at Lumbini (in Nepal) near Kapilvastu. He was the son of King Shuddhodhana, He went in search of truth and attained enlightenment under a papal tree at Bodh Gaya, and delivered his first sermons at Sarnath in U.P. He spread his message of many years and died at Kushinagar in U.P. There are many sects of Buddhism out of which three are important: Mahayan (the higher vehicle) – It believes Buddha to be a God Hinman (the lesser Vehicle) – It does not believe that Buddha was a God. It is a more pristine form of Buddhism. Vajrayan- It is the tantric form of Buddhism. Now prevalent in Ladakh and Bhutan. Buddhism got divided into Hinyan and Mahayan at the fourth Buddhist council held during the reign of Harshavardhan. The main Buddhist teachings are: The eight-fold path of right faith, thought, action, livelihood, efforts, speech, remembrance and concentration. Belief in Nirvana (freedom from the cycle of birth and death), Ahimsa, the law of karma.

Jainism

Founded by Rishabha (a Kshatriya), Jainism attained peak under Vardhamana Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara). Mahavira was born was born at Kundagrama in 540 BC in Bihar, and attained perfect knowledge, ‘Kaivalya,’ after he becomes ascetic at the age of 30. He became a ‘Jina’ one who has conquered happiness and misery) and died at Pava near Rajgiri. Jainism is also divided into two sects, viz., digambars and shwetambara. Former is a more pristine form and remain naked, while latter, wear white clothes. The main feature of Jainism are: The triratna concept, consisting of (a) right knowledge, (b) right faith, (c) right conduct. Belief in Karma and belief in Ahimsa, are the other two great teachings of this religion. [table id=1 /] Hope you liked the detailed information on ancient India. In the next post, we will discuss medieval India.

Do you know about Modern India? A General Knowledge Approach

As we know, Indian history can be classified into three broad categories. Ancient, Medieval and Modern. We have already discussed Ancient and Medieval India in last few posts. Here, in this post, we will study about Modern India and throw some light on the chain of events happening in ancient India and concluding in modern India.

Modern India

In 1498, a Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India helped in establishing the political structure in India. East India Company of Britain came here with the excuse of trading and soon started developing its political dominion in India and, finally, succeeded in establishing their rule over India.

Important events related to Modern Indian History

1. First war of Independence (Mutiny of Sepoys)

It took place in 1857 when soldiers refused to touch the new rifle cartridges which were said to have been greased with a cover made of animal fat. Mangal Pande was a prominent figure, who surfaced during this mutiny. He killed two Britishers at Barrackbore, and this was also one of the causes of the mutiny.

2. Government of India Act, 1858

This proclaimed the direct governance of British crown over India.

3. Formation of Indian National Congress

A.O.Hume is credited with the formation of Indian National Congress in December 1885, which held its first session at Bombay, under the presidentship of W.C. Banerjee.

4. Partition of Bengal

It took place in 1905.

Other significant events related to Indian Freedom Movement

formation of congress by AO hume-modern-india

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Important Lords and Viceroys associated with British rule and related events

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List of Important Historical Events

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List of important Presidents of Indian National Congress

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Important Newspaper brought out by National Leaders

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Important visitors to India and the Kings whose courts they visited

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A dive into Medieval India – General Knowledge Approach

Medieval India

Indian history can be classified into three broad categories, Ancient, Medieval and Modern. In the last post, we discussed Ancient India and Indus valley civilization detail. Now, we are discussing medieval history.

Introduction

Marked by the beginning of Delhi, which was established after the conquest of Muhammad Ghouri. The period of Sultanate of Delhi ranges from AD 1206-1526. This is considered as the beginning of Muslim rule in India. India in this period is called Medieval India.

Important Dynasties in Medieval India

1. The Slave Dynasty

The Slave Dynasty’s period ranges from AD 1206-1290. It was founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibek, and the prominent rulers of this dynasty were Iltutmish and the only Muslim woman ruler of India, Razia Sultana.

2. The Khilji dynasty

It was founded by Jalal-Ud-din Khilji and its period ranges from AD 1290-1320. Alaud-din Khilji was one of the most prominent rulers of this dynasty.

3. The Tughlaq dynasty

It was founded by Ghiasuddin Tughlak and the period ranges from AD 1320-1414. Ibn Batuta was an important African traveler who visited India in 1333.

4. The Lodhi Dynasty

It was founded by Bahlol Lodhi and the period of the dynasty ranges from AD 1451-1526. Sikander and Ibrahim Lodhi were the other two prominent rulers belonging to this dynasty.

5. The Mughal Dynasty

One of the most important dynasties of India is Mughal dynasty, which reigned almost continuously from AD 1526-1857 (the longest period).

Important Rulers of Mughal Dynasty:

1. Babur

He is credited with the foundation of Mughal empire by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat on April 20, 1526.

2. Humayun

He was the next emperor of Mughal empire after Babur.

3. Akbar

The most successful of Mughal emperor. An excellent leader, who separated religion and politics, started a new religion called Din-e-Ilahi.

4. Jehangir

 The son of Akbar, who ascended the throne after Akbar’s death, known for his administration and strict sense of justice. He was the husband of famous Noor Jahan Begum.

5. Shah Jahan

Famous ruler and son of Jehangir, who built Taj Mahal at Agra, in the memory of his wife, Mumtaj Mahal. Jama Masjid and red Fort are the other two famous buildings that were built by him.

6. Aurangzeb

A very cruel ruler and son of Shah Jahan, who demolished several religious structures of Hindus, and ruled for about 50 years. Mughal Empire started declining with the attack of Nadir Shah who took the famous Kohinoor diamond with him to Afghanistan. Then came the Marathas who became powerful under the leadership of Shivaji. Name of Fame: Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri | Image Source He was a brilliant administrator who issued the coins and built the famous Grand Trunk Road from Peshawar to Calcutta.

Important monuments built by Mughal in Medieval India:

1. Shalimar garden and Nishant Bagh by Jehangir

2. Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Agra Fort by Shah Jahan

Geographical Facts Everyone should know as a part of General Knowledge

Physical Geographical Facts

Geographical facts are derived from common general knowledge on planets, satellites, moon, eclipses, atmosphere, continents, oceans, rocks, etc. We will cover these elements of physical geography in brief here. In next post, we will cover an exclusive section on geographical facts of India. To explore more general knowledge resources click here.

Planets

The revolving bodies around the Sun are called planets. There are eight known planets. Diameter of planets | Image Source 1. Mercury Closest to the Sun and is the fastest planet to revolve around the Sun 2. Venus Brightest planet after the Sun and the Moon and is the hottest planet in all 3. Earth is only known planet to possess life 4. Mars Known as the red planet. Explored for life astronomers now, as it is having similarities with Earth. 5. Jupiter The largest planet of the solar system. 6. Saturn System of rings are the characteristics feature of this planet 7. Uranus 8. Neptune 9. Pluto – The International Astronomical Union (IAU) downgraded the status of Pluto to that of a dwarf planet because it did not meet the three criteria the IAU uses to define a full-sized planet. Essentially Pluto meets all the criteria except one i.e. it has not cleared its neighboring region of other objects.”

Comets

These are essential bodies that move around the Sun. Two famous comets known, are as follow Halley’s Comet | Image Source 1. Halley’s Comet: Discovered by British astronomer Edmond Halley, takes 76.1 years to encircle the Sun. It was last seen on February 9, 1986. 2. Smith-Tuttle Comet: It’s huge comet heading on a collision course with Earth on August 17, 2116.

Satellites

These are the bodies which revolve around the planets. Mercury and Venus have no satellite. Earth has only one satellite (natural), i.e. Moon. Jupiter has the maximum number (63) of satellites. Moon | Click Here For Interesting Facts Moon: The first planet of our solar system visited by man. On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin were the first to set foot on the Moon, and between them, Neil Armstrong is the first person to have set foot on the Moon.

Earth

Its shape is oblate spheroid called Geoid, like a ball which is flattened at the poles. Interesting Facts about Earth: 1. Mean distance from the Sun: 1,49,407,000 Km. 2. Time taken by Earth to revolve around the Sun: 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 45.51 seconds. 3. Time taken by Earth for rotating on its own axis: 23 hours 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds. 4. Earth is covered 70% by water and 30% by land.

Movements of Earth

1. Revolution: The earth revolves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit. One complete revolution is called a year and this revolution of Earth causes the change of seasons. 2. Rotation: Earth rotates on its own imaginary axis, also simultaneously revolving around the Sun. It moves from west to east. This causes day and night. 3. Duration of days and night is equal at the equator.

Eclipses

Solar Eclipse

It occurs when the Moon comes between the Sun and the Earth, and this causes hindrance in Sun’s light when reviewed from the Earth. A view of lunar eclipse from space

Lunar Eclipse

When the Earth comes between the Moon and the Sun, the shadow cast by the Earth on the Moon causes the lunar eclipse.

Atmosphere

The Earth is surrounded by a gaseous cover called the atmosphere. There are many gasses in the atmosphere like Oxygen, Nitrogen, Caron Dioxide, Helium, Argon, Xenon, etc. The maximum percentage of gas present in the atmosphere is Nitrogen and that comprises 77%. The atmosphere is divided mainly into four layers.

  1. Troposphere: It is the nearest layer to the Earth’s surface and is up to 15 km of height from the Earth’s surface. 2. Stratosphere: From the end of 15 km of the troposphere, the stratosphere is present till 50 km of the atmosphere. 3. Mesosphere: It lies between 50 km and 80 km above the surface of the Earth. 4. Ionosphere: It lies above the mesosphere and extends from 80 km to 400 km above the Earth’s surface. Radio communication takes place because of this layer.

Ozone Layer

The ozone layer is situated in the stratosphere belt of earth’s atmosphere. The basic Ozone gas structure consists of three oxygen atoms. Ozone gas is present in the stratosphere in the form of a layer, which extends from 12 km to 30 km above the earth’s surface. The main function of Ozone is that it protects mankind from harmful radiations which come from the outer space i.e. ultraviolet radiations (UV-radiations) from the Sun. Nowadays this ozone layer is getting depleted which can cause skin cancer and damage vegetation. The main reason behind the depletion of Ozone layer also called Ozone Hole is pollution and pollutants present in the atmosphere like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s also known as Freons), which comes from refrigerated systems, aerosols, air conditioners and solvents. To minimize the Ozone layer depletion the governments of many countries are now replacing the CFC’s with simple hydrocarbons.

Continents

The surface of the Earth is made up of big land masses which are divided into seven continents. The seven continents of the world are as follows: 1. Asia – The largest continent (covers approximately 30% of the world land and hosts 59 percent of the world population. 2. Africa – The largest desert Sahara is there. 3. North America 4. South America 5. Antarctica – covered with ice 6. Europe 7. Oceania (Australia) – The smallest continent and the only continent with capital i.e., Canberra Antarctica and Oceania are islands continents.

Oceans

There are five oceans on the Earth (1) Pacific Ocean (2) Atlantic Ocean (3) India Ocean (4) Arctic Ocean (5) Antarctic Ocean Pacific being the largest occupies 35.25% of the Earth’s surface. The South China Sea has the maximum area among all the seas of the world.

Rocks

These form the crust of the Earth. Basically, rocks are mineral material. They are classified into three broad categories. 1. Igneous rocks – It constitutes 90% of the Earth’s crust. 2. Metamorphic rocks – Original igneous or sedimentary rocks when subject to change due to pressure or temperature, and metamorphose into metamorphic rocks, i.e. slate, marble, etc. 3. Sedimentary rocks – As the name suggests, these rocks are formed from the sedimentary deposits on the ocean beds, i.e. gypsum, limestone, etc.

Important Mountain Ranges and Mountain peaks of the World

(i) Mountain Ranges

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(ii) Mountain Peaks

[table id=9 /] Interesting Fact: Everest is the highest mountain peak of the world, situated in Nepal and extended to Tibet and K2 is India’s highest mountain peak, but it is situated in POK. Therefore, Kanchenjunga is the highest peak within India.

Important Water Sources of the World

(i) natural Lakes

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(ii) Shipping Canals
  1. Panama Canal: It links the pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. It is located in Central America and is 58 km long.
  2. Suez Canal: It links the red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It is in Egypt and is 169 km long.
  3. Kiel Canal: It lies between Baltic Sea and the North Sea ports. It is in Germany and is 98 km long.

Note: Angel Waterfall which is in Venezuela, is the highest waterfall in the world having a height of 979 meters.

(iii) Important Rivers of the world

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New names of certain cities and countries

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Important world cities on river banks

[table id=13 /] Hope you enjoyed reading this section. You can also read more General Knowledge resources and about the history of India here.